HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW MARKETING ARTICLES



Harvard Business Review Marketing Articles

La science du marketing sensoriel HBR. Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres, In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it..

Frank V. Cespedes Faculty - Harvard Business School

Content Marketing The Harvard Business Review Perspective. In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it., Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7.

Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7 A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada.

Selon de nouvelles Г©tudes, de nombreux secteurs ne saisissent pas les occasions de solliciter les sens des consommateurs. Pendant vingt ans, les professionnels du marketing de diffГ©rents secteurs ont dГ©veloppГ© leur expertise pour atteindre les clients au travers de leurs cinq sens : en apprenant Г  Г©mettre des signaux, comme le piquant associГ© Г  une gorgГ©e de bain de bouche ou le A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada.

Selon de nouvelles Г©tudes, de nombreux secteurs ne saisissent pas les occasions de solliciter les sens des consommateurs. Pendant vingt ans, les professionnels du marketing de diffГ©rents secteurs ont dГ©veloppГ© leur expertise pour atteindre les clients au travers de leurs cinq sens : en apprenant Г  Г©mettre des signaux, comme le piquant associГ© Г  une gorgГ©e de bain de bouche ou le In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it.

Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer". Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief. If you read nothing else on marketing that delivers competitive advantage, read these 10 articles. We’ve combed through hundreds of articles in the Harvard Business Review archive and selected the most important ones to help you reinvent your marketing by putting it—and your customers—at the center of your business.

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo GimГ©nez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond Hābādo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7 We asked them for examples of creativity in marketing that go beyond ad campaigns and deliver tangible value to the business. Their stories — and the five wider trends they reflect — help

La science du marketing sensoriel HBR

harvard business review marketing articles

Frank V. Cespedes Faculty - Harvard Business School. A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada., Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for.

Harvard Business Review article collection Data-driven. Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing → New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy., Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer"..

Experiential Marketing Article - Harvard Business School

harvard business review marketing articles

HBR Store Articles - Harvard Business Review. Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres.

harvard business review marketing articles


Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7 Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy.

Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo GimГ©nez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy.

Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

Harvard Business Review on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Harvard Business Review on Nonprofits Harvard Business Review on Organizational Learning Harvard Business Review on Strategies for Growth Harvard Business Review on Turnarounds Harvard Business Review on Work and Life Balance HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iii. HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iv This Page … Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo Giménez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

Harvard Business Review on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Harvard Business Review on Nonprofits Harvard Business Review on Organizational Learning Harvard Business Review on Strategies for Growth Harvard Business Review on Turnarounds Harvard Business Review on Work and Life Balance HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iii. HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iv This Page … Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

Theodore Levitt Wikipedia

harvard business review marketing articles

La science du marketing sensoriel HBR. Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for, Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7.

Theodore Levitt Wikipedia

Theodore Levitt Wikipedia. Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK, In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it..

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7

We asked them for examples of creativity in marketing that go beyond ad campaigns and deliver tangible value to the business. Their stories — and the five wider trends they reflect — help Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision. The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision.

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo GimГ©nez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres

Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it.

Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada.

Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer". Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo Giménez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision. Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for

Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK Harvard Business Review on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Harvard Business Review on Nonprofits Harvard Business Review on Organizational Learning Harvard Business Review on Strategies for Growth Harvard Business Review on Turnarounds Harvard Business Review on Work and Life Balance HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iii. HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iv This Page …

If you read nothing else on marketing that delivers competitive advantage, read these 10 articles. We’ve combed through hundreds of articles in the Harvard Business Review archive and selected the most important ones to help you reinvent your marketing by putting it—and your customers—at the center of your business. Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

Harvard Business Review on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution Harvard Business Review on Nonprofits Harvard Business Review on Organizational Learning Harvard Business Review on Strategies for Growth Harvard Business Review on Turnarounds Harvard Business Review on Work and Life Balance HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iii. HBR033chfm 1/16/02 3:01 PM Page iv This Page … Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing → New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy.

HBR Store Articles - Harvard Business Review. Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres, Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for.

HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategic Marketing (with

harvard business review marketing articles

Frank V. Cespedes Faculty - Harvard Business School. A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada., Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief..

Theodore Levitt Wikipedia

harvard business review marketing articles

HBR Store Articles - Harvard Business Review. Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer". If you read nothing else on marketing that delivers competitive advantage, read these 10 articles. We’ve combed through hundreds of articles in the Harvard Business Review archive and selected the most important ones to help you reinvent your marketing by putting it—and your customers—at the center of your business..

harvard business review marketing articles

  • Milestones in Marketing Harvard Business School
  • What Creativity in Marketing Looks Like Today
  • Theodore Levitt — WikipГ©dia

  • Read Articles about Marketing - HBS Working Knowledge: The latest business management research and ideas from HBS faculty. About; Harvard Business Review; Management: : Marketing в†’ New research on marketing from Harvard Business School faculty on issues including advertising, crisis communications, social media, digital marketing techniques and strategy. Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

    Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer". The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision.

    Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

    A version of this article appeared in the December 2013 issue of Harvard Business Review. Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School, Canada. Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

    Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond Hābādo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7 Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer".

    Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres Theodore Levitt, nГ© le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 Г  Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un Г©conomiste amГ©ricain, Г©diteur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing Г  la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le cГ©lГЁbre В« Marketing myopia В» et d'une dizaine de livres

    Theodore Levitt, né le 1 er mars 1925 en Allemagne et mort le 28 juin 2006 à Belmont dans le Massachusetts, est un économiste américain, éditeur pendant quatre ans de la Harvard Business Review et professeur de marketing à la Harvard Business School.. Il est l'auteur de nombreux articles sur le marketing et le management dont le célèbre « Marketing myopia » et d'une dizaine de livres Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

    Quelch, J. "Experiential Marketing." Diamond HДЃbДЃdo bijunesu [Diamond Harvard Business Review] (March 2003): 7 The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision.

    The more marketers understand the customer journey, the better chance they have to be there at the right moment with the most helpful message. This collection of Harvard Business Review articles explores how marketers use insights to achieve their vision. Frank Cespedes is Senior Lecturer in the Entrepreneurial Management Unit. He received his B.A. from the City College of New York, M.S. from M.I.T. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. At Harvard, he has developed and taught a variety of MBA and executive courses, led the Strategic Marketing Management program for senior executives, and was co-lead of the Sustainable Market Leadership program for

    Theodore Levitt (March 1, 1925, – June 28, 2006) was an American economist and a professor at the Harvard Business School.He was editor of the Harvard Business Review, noted for increasing the Review's circulation and popularizing the term globalization.In 1983, he proposed a definition for corporate purpose: "Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer". Harvard Business Review. Decision-driven marketing Decision-driven marketing. Focus on the seams between marketing and the other functions it interacts with. By Aditya Joshi and Eduardo Giménez. June 24, 2014 min read Article Decision-driven marketing. The full version of this article is available on Harvard Business Online (subscription required). Marketers have always had to build brands

    Selon de nouvelles Г©tudes, de nombreux secteurs ne saisissent pas les occasions de solliciter les sens des consommateurs. Pendant vingt ans, les professionnels du marketing de diffГ©rents secteurs ont dГ©veloppГ© leur expertise pour atteindre les clients au travers de leurs cinq sens : en apprenant Г  Г©mettre des signaux, comme le piquant associГ© Г  une gorgГ©e de bain de bouche ou le Business Research for Business Leaders. Working Knowledge. @HBSWK

    Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief. Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.

    In a recent article in the Harvard Business Review, The Content Marketing Revolution, I was finally vindicated to what I have been preaching for the last 2 years: We are going through a major transformation in business marketing. And what has ushered in this change is that ordinary people now have an extraordinary access to information and choices, and they know it. Harvard Business Review – What do Opinion Leaders Think of Market Research? Do we need to worry about our reputation of the Market Research industry? I would give a resounding "Yes" as an answer. Two recent examples from the Harvard Business Review reinforced this belief.